From an anatomical point of view, the nervous system is divided into a central and a peripheral component. The central nervous system (CNS) is composed of the encephalon (cerebral hemispheres, diencephalon, cerebellum and brainstem) and spinal cord. The peripheral nervous system (PNS) is composed of sensory and motor neurons. While sensory neurons provide information about what happens in internal and external environment, motor neurons are responsible for producing the necessary actions in skeletal, smooth, cardiac muscles and glands.
The nervous system is constituted by two types of cells: neurons or nerve cells and glia or neuroglia. Both cell types form neural circuits, which constitute the primary components responsible for processing specific information. These systems perform three general functions: sensory (present the information about the state of the organism and its environment), motor (organize and generate future actions) and associative (link the sensory and motor information).
One of the features that characterize the neuron is that it is specialized in communication through electrical signals, for which it has specific structures.