The visual system is part of the special senses that humans possess. Its purpose is to capture information about the world around us. The vision process comprises a series of steps that begin by obtaining luminous energy through the eyes, this energy is transformed into electrical signals by photosensitive receptors located in the retina. The encoding of these signals and subsequent extrapolation to different areas of the cerebral cortex, allows the identification of form, color, movement, location, and object recognition.

Vision is the result of a fine coordination and the proper functioning of several factors, among which are: muscles, neurons forming the retina, lateral geniculate nucleus (thalamus), primary visual cortex and visual association cortices.